Posts in Category: Dog vaccines
According to the AVMA, in 2007 there were 72 million pet dogs, 82 million pet cats and over 4 million pet birds. At least 3% of the US households own a reptile. Almost one half of those pet owners consider their pets to be a member of the family. We are a pet loving country. That’s the good news.
The bad news is that we can share more than love with our pets. Did you know that according to the Center for Disease Control that almost 14% of the US population has been infected with Toxacara (roundworm of dogs and cats). That’s because up to 30% of dogs fewer than 6 months of age and 25% of all cats are infected with roundworms.
Cats and dogs can carry Roundworms, Tapeworms, Hookworms, Leptospirosis, Ringworm and Rabies to name a few. Pocket pets and reptiles can carry Salmonella. Birds can also carry Salmonella as well as Psittacosis (a bacterial disease).
Who is most at risk? According to our friends at CAPC (Companion Animal Parasite Council), it is generally those who come in contact with the soil the most often. That includes, gardeners, plumbers, sunbathers and of course children. Immune compromised individuals need to be particularly careful.
So should we get rid of all of our pets? No need to get so carried away. Following are some relatively simple measures you can take to control the risk of zoonotic transmission in your family.
- Wash your hands after handling pets, soil and feces. Be especially vigilant with youngsters.
- Don’t eat or smoke while you handle your pet. Especially if it is a reptile, bird or pocket pet.
- Pets and food preparation do not go together.
- Keep your pets on a regular schedule of deworming. Dogs and cats should be on broad spectrum, year round anti-parasitic products.
- Get annual fecal parasite checks. That’s because you may give your pet his preventative but he may either spit it out or throw it up later on.
- Treat pets and their surroundings for fleas.
- Dispose of pet feces on a daily basis.
- Cover up your children’s sandbox when it’s not in use.
- Feed only cooked, canned or dry dog and cat food.
- Don’t allow birds or reptiles to roam loose in the house.
- If you are scratched by your pet, wash the area thoroughly.
- Vaccinate. Yes, there is some risk (1/10,000) of soft tissue sarcomas in cats with the use of Rabies and Feline Leukemia vaccines. We try to make it safer by vaccinating every 3 years. However, our biggest concern is that Rabies is out there and it kills all of us all the time.
- Immune compromised individuals should not own reptiles or amphibians.
- Don’t let your dog or cat drink from the toilet bowl. According to CAPC this can spread human adapted strains of parasites to pets
Vaccinations are one of the most common procedures a pet receives at the veterinarian’s office Vaccines help enhance your pet’s immune response as a way to prevent infectious disease. Most species including humans receive vaccines at some point in their life.
We begin the process in young animals as maternal antibodies (received in the womb and while nursing) decrease. Once an animal becomes an adult, vaccinations are continued at regular intervals based on manufacturer’s recommendations and those of agencies such as the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) and AHHA (American Animal Hospital Association) and AAFP (American Association of Feline Practitioners). Your vet may increase frequency or even discontinue specific vaccines on a given animal if there is concern regarding immune response.
Vaccines are divided into two groups – either core or noncore. Core vaccines are recommended for every animal of a given species. An example of a core vaccine would be Parvovirus. It is endemic to the United States and can cause death or severe illness in affected dogs.
Noncore vaccines are recommended for those individuals who are at risk for exposure to certain infectious agents. An example would be recommending Lyme vaccine for a pet that has had tick (which are known to transmit Lyme disease) infestation in the past or frequents areas that are known tick habitats.
AAHA vaccine guidelines consider the following vaccines core:
- Canine Parvovirus: All puppies should receive 3 doses between the ages of 6 to 16 weeks administered 3 – 4 weeks apart. All puppies should also receive a one year booster. Unvaccinated adults require 2 doses at 3 – 4 week intervals. Annual vaccination is not recommended in adults. This is why we use a 2 year vaccination interval at Animal Family.
- Canine Distemper Virus: All puppies should receive 3 doses between the ages of 6 to 16 weeks administered 3 – 4 weeks apart. All puppies should also receive a one year booster. Unvaccinated adults require 2 doses at 3 – 4 weeks apart. . Annual vaccination is not recommended in adults this is why we use a 2 year vaccination interval at Animal Family.
- Canine Adenovirus (Hepatitis): All puppies should receive 3 doses between the ages of 6 to 16 weeks administered 3 – 4 weeks apart. All puppies should receive a one year booster. Unvaccinated adults require 2 doses at 3 – 4 weeks apart. Annual vaccination is not recommended in adults. This is why we use a 2 year vaccination interval at Animal Family.
- Rabies: State statutes dictate rabies vaccine protocols. In Iowa, puppies should receive one dose as early as 4 months. All puppies receive a 1 year booster. Thereafter a dog may go to 3 year vaccination intervals. Unvaccinated adults receive a single dose, a booster at 1 year and boosters every 3 years thereafter. Boosters must be done close to the original administration date or the animal will require a 1 year booster.
AAHA vaccine guidelines consider the following vaccines as non-core:
- Parainfluenza: All puppies should receive 3 doses between the ages of 6 to 16 weeks administered 3 – 4 weeks apart. All puppies should receive a one year booster. Unvaccinated adults require a single dose.
- Bordatella (Kennel Cough): Both puppies and unvaccinated adults should receive 2 doses 3 – 4 weeks apart. Thereafter annual boosters are recommended for high-risk animals. We consider this to be a core vaccine at Animal Family because all dogs have exposure to other canines
- Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease): Puppies should receive 2 doses. The first at 9 – 12 weeks and the second 3 – 4 weeks later. Unvaccinated adults should receive 2 doses at 3 – 4 week intervals. Annual boosters are recommended thereafter. Vaccination is recommended for those animals who live in or visit areas where exposure to tick vectors is high or animals who live in an area where the disease is considered to be endemic.
- Canine Coronavirus: AAHA does not recommend this vaccine since clinical cases rarely occur.
- Leptospira: Puppies should receive 2 doses between the ages of 12 to 16 weeks administered 3 – 4 weeks apart. All puppies should receive a one year booster. Unvaccinated adults should receive 2 doses 3 – 4 weeks apart. Annual vaccinations are recommended thereafter. We consider Leptospira a core vaccine at Animal Family because we see clinical cases every year.
This covers the vaccines recommended for dogs. Next week we will cover feline vaccination recommendations.