Posts in Category: veterinarian
Wow! It’s getting hot out there! Temperatures are already hitting the 80’s on some days and the humidity has increased as well. At our house, we cope by switching to shorts and light t-shirts, drinking lots of water and taking breaks indoors or in the shade. We produce quite a bit of sweat and take extra showers. That works for us but what about our pets? Read our summer safety tips to help keep your best friend healthy.
What can you do to make summer more comfortable and safer for your pet?
- Provide lots of fresh water. Make sure it is in a container that can’t be overturned by mistake and that there is enough to last all day. In addition, if you use a zip line or some other type of tether you need to make double sure your pet can’t become entangled and unable to reach either shade or his or her water source.
- Indoors or out. Is there a place where your pet can stay cool and out of the sun? That may mean keeping your pet indoors in the air conditioning in the summer. However, there is nothing wrong with a dog run or backyard shelter providing there is access to shade, water and hopefully a cooling breeze.
- Jogging – maybe not. I know that your dog is in good shape. He jogs with you all winter long. However, that doesn’t mean that it is safe to continue jogging with Rover in the summer heat. Remember, dogs can’t cool themselves like we do. Add that to the fact that your loyal companion will keep going no matter how hot he/she gets and you have a recipe for disaster. Unless you run early in the day, long, before the heat sets in, please leave your dog at home.
- Never leave your pet in the car! Want to know why? Check out this data compiled by the Animal Protection Institute. If your car is closed with no open windows and it is 82 degrees outdoors, in no time at all, the temperature in your car is 109. At 91 degrees, it’s 115 in the car. Think cracking the windows help? If it is 84 degrees outside the temperature in the car is still 98 degrees. At 90 degrees, it is 108 in the car. Got the picture? Even leaving your pet in the car while you run in for a short errand can be deadly.
- What are the signs of heat stroke? You may see excessive panting, stumbling, weakness, stupor and bright red gums. Body temperatures of 104 degrees or more can occur. As heat stroke progresses, seizures, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, coma and death may follow. “Parked car” or brachycephalic breeds such as Bull Dogs, Pugs, Boxers and others are much more susceptible to heat related problems. Even your bunny, chinchilla or reptiles can suffer from heat related problems. If the weather is warm, think shade and water.
- If you suspect heat stroke – it’s an emergency! Hose your pet down and bring him/her to the clinic immediately! Don’t try to treat heatstroke on your own. Heatstroke can literally cook internal organs. Pets who have suffered heat stoke may also experience swelling and edema of the trachea making it difficult for them to breathe. Too much cooling can make your pet even sicker. It’s a balance of IV fluids, supportive care and monitoring. Leave it to the professionals.
- Pet pools – are great for helping your buddy cool down in the summer heat but remember to change the water frequently. If you are lucky enough to have a people sized pool, treat your pets just like your children. Protect them from accidental drowning by never leaving them in the pool area unsupervised.
- Cool Ideas – Think about getting a pet fountain that provides a continuous stream of fresh, cool water to drink. Fans can help where air conditioning isn’t available. Recently, bandanas and body wraps made specifically for cooling have been developed. After soaking in cool water, these products can provide relief for a limited time. Frozen pop bottles are fun for pets to play with in the pool or on the ground. Even bunnies can benefit from a frozen pop bottle in their cage. Just make sure to wrap it in a cloth before placing it in with your rabbit but don’t let bunny start chewing on the cloth or bottle.
- Shaving?? – That’s up for debate but if you do, remember your pet will be much more likely to sunburn in the summer sun. Double coated breeds do best when their undercoat is brushed out leaving their guard hair. This allows trapped air to cool your pet.
- Exotic tips – Cold blooded pets need warm weather care too. Air conditioning can be TOO COLD for many exotics BUT a terrarium placed up against a hot window may become an oven. This applies to birds as well. Too much draft and cold will result in upper respiratory problems. Too much heat can cause heat stroke and death.
Oh wow! Anesthesia can be so scary! How do you know your pet is going to be ok? Will they wake up? How does a pet owner make certain their pet is receiving the safest surgical care possible?
What you should look for:
- Take a tour of the facility. Check out the surgical suites. Do they have up to date anesthetic machines, monitoring and warming equipment?
- Do they stress the importance of pre-surgical bloodwork? Pre-anesthetic testing is what determines if your pet has health problems that would make anesthesia unsafe or if they require special anesthetic drug protocols.
- What type of anesthesia is used? There is a huge difference between cheap injectable first generation anesthetics and the newer generation of drugs and inhalants that can be specifically tailored to an individual animal’s needs.
- What kind of staff do they employ? Are the surgical staff highly trained Veterinary Technicians or poorly paid lay persons who learn their trade on the job and with your pet? The best equipment in the world is no good if there is no one who understands what the readings mean.
- Do they have complete monitoring systems in place? This should include heart rate, blood pressure, carbon dioxide levels, oxygen levels, respiration, body temperature.
- Do they employ intravenous catheters, IV fluids and endotracheal tubes needed to control blood pressure, oxygen and anesthetic delivery? Or do they use an injectable anesthetic and hope for the best?
- Do they keep their staff up to date through continuing education? Technology is improving and changing all the time. Make sure the clinic you use keeps their staff current and well trained.
- Is it clean? Does the clinic smell clean? Believe it or not there are clinics that will use the same surgical pack on more than one animal. Are all the instruments, including those used in dentistry sterilized after each procedure?
- Is there a good pain management protocol in place? Or will your pet lay in a kennel with no relief once surgery is complete.
What you can do to make anesthesia safer for your pet:
- Make certain that your veterinarian is aware of all medications, supplements and over the counter drugs your pet is receiving. Then follow their instructions about how and what to administer before anesthesia.
- Don’t feed your pet if your veterinarian tells you not to. Ignoring this can cause vomiting and aspiration pneumonia. Conversely, if you have an exotic pet, feed them if you are instructed to do so. They have different requirements than dogs and cats.
- Tell your veterinarian if your pet has ever had any reaction to any type of medication. If your pet has a seizure disorder or is diabetic, please make sure to share this information. This is especially important if you are new to the practice.
- Don’t let your pet become overweight. It makes anesthesia much less safe.
- Make sure your pet stays healthy by staying up to date on all routine health care.
- Don’t wait too long to spay or neuter. Large, overweight females that have been through several heat cycles are every veterinarians least favorite surgical patient. Everything is bigger, with more surrounding fat, more friable, harder to ligate and more prone to bleeding.
- If you’re not sure, ask questions. We don’t mind.
Spring is in the air and so is puppy love. This is the time of year when many of us yearn for a new puppy… what could be cuter? Dogs make wonderful companions. Just remember not to jump into pet ownership thoughtlessly. There are many factors that should be considered to ensure that your new puppy is the proper fit for your family.
- The first thing you need to look at is YOU. How active are you? Do you have children? How old are they? How old are you? Do you live in an apartment, single family home or in the country? Is your yard fenced? What is your personality like? Are you assertive, passive or somewhere in between? Do you have any disabilities or health issues? Do you mind spending time or money on grooming your pet? How picky are you about your house? Do you think pets should even be in the house? The list goes on but the point is the first thing you need to look at is your life and lifestyle.
Once you have an idea of your parameters, it’s time to start looking at the dog.
- What size of dog fits you? Large dogs require more space. They can be more difficult for a petite or older person to handle. They are more expensive to feed, medicate, spay or neuter. They can be a heck of a lot more work to exercise as well. As for small dogs: they require less of everything but activity. Size does not relate to activity level. There are some VERY busy small breeds.
- How about activity levels. You need to be very honest with yourself about what activity level you can tolerate in your pet. Age and general health may dictate a small, quiet, older animal. Are you interested in taking your dog to the dog park or out for a walk or run every day? Even with a large backyard, most active breeds will require additional exercise. If you’re a couch potato, many of the hunting and herding breeds may be too high energy for you. Think about your children as well. If they are too boisterous and rowdy, they may terrify some of the more timid breeds.
- Then there’s sociability. Do you want a dog that loves everyone or a more reserved animal that may bond only to you or your immediate family? If you love entertaining or traveling, be sure to get an animal that will enjoy it as well. Clearly, a one person dog would not be a great idea if you usually have your children as well as all the neighbors’ kids running through the house.
- Emotional stability is just as important. Some breeds are very easy going and unflappable. Others are less so. That includes many of the smaller breeds but some of the big guys as well. Again, this is particularly important if you have small children or an active social life. Do your homework and make certain you find a breed that will tolerate busy little hands and bodies.
- Trainability. Don’t confuse intelligence with trainability. Many of the so-called smart breeds can actually be quite difficult to train. Trainability should be thought of as the “will to please”. So, if you insist on perfect behavior, do your homework and plan on spending some time in obedience classes as well. But, if what you really want is a pet that will simply sit, lie down and not eat up the house there are plenty of contenders out there. PLEASE just don’t buy a highly motivated Border collie or other overachiever if you don’t have the time to keep them busy. When not kept occupied these doggie geniuses may end up destroying your home out of boredom and frustration.
- Dominance. Unfortunately many people confuse dominance and aggression. Most of the biting dogs we see in veterinary practice are actually fearful in nature. Dominant animals are generally confident if they have a calm, assertive owner. In the simplest terms dominance can be thought of as the how hard your dog will work to get his or her own way. Dominance is variable. Some dogs may just be dominant over other dogs but submissive to people. Dominance is not related to size either. There are a lot of pint sized Napoleons out there. Be sure to match your will to rule to that of your future pet.
- Hardiness. Pay special attention to hardiness when selecting a breed. Bulldogs and some of the short-faced (brachycephalic) breeds don’t do well in the heat. Chihuahuas, Greyhounds and other short coated dogs are not suited to outdoor life in the colder climates. Matted coats, burned skin, heat stroke or frost bite may all be the consequences of wrong choices made on your part. Then again, some breeds have been so completed altered by human kind that they are born with an array of health problems just waiting to happen. No matter what, it’s still best to know ahead of time.
- Grooming. Do you mind brushing your dog every day? How about a grooming bill once a month? How about a really big grooming bill once a month? Would you prefer a non-shedding coat? How about a dog with almost no coat at all? Do you know how to care for eyes and ears or nails and matted hair? What about anal glands? Every breed has different grooming care needs. Don’t overlook this when selecting your dog.
Great dogs can be found in a lot of places. That includes shelters and rescue groups. We wish you good luck in your search and hope that you have figured out that picking the right puppy involves a lot more than who’s got the cutest brown eyes. Hopefully, you now know that it takes a well thought out plan that combines your needs with those of your future pet. So be sure to use all of the resources available to you. Read books, attend dog shows, ask your veterinarian, talk to your friends, talk to breed associations, do whatever it takes to make yourself aware and educated. Then go ahead and take the big leap into puppy love.
Who hates fleas? Everybody hates fleas! Ctenocephalides canis or felis better known as the common flea is not a visitor anyone ever welcomes to their home. For those of us who have had to deal with a flea infestation- once is definitely enough! There are a lot of good reasons to avoid this hopping, biting scourge of the insect world aside from the obvious “yuck” factor surrounding them.
- Fleas make their living by biting other animals and feeding on their blood. When fleas bite they inject saliva into the skin of their host which can cause inflammation, itching, allergic dermatitis and hair loss. Even worse, if the host is small enough or the number of fleas’ large enough, anemia can result from blood loss.
- Fleas don’t just bite your pet. They bite you. They bite your children. Everybody gets itchy.
- A single female flea can lay up to 50 eggs each day and up to 2000 eggs in her short life time!!! Of course by the time you discover that your pet has fleas, there are most likely eggs and larva throughout your home.
- Fleas act as a transport vehicle for the aptly named “Flea” tapeworm. Pets ingest fleas as they groom. Once the flea is in the digestive system, the larva breaks free and finds a home in your pet’s intestines. An adult tapeworm can grow up to 75 cm (29.5 inches). According to CPAC (Companion Animal Parasite Council), “Infections of children with D. caninum following ingestion of an infected flea are occasionally reported. The disease induced in the child is generally mild, confined to the intestinal tract, and readily treated, but can still be distressing to the family.”
- Fleas carry the Plague – the Bubonic Plague. This is particularly important in the Rocky Mountain States.
- Fleas carry Typhus and yes it can be transmitted to humans. According to Pubmed Health, “Typhus is caused by one of two types of bacteria: Rickettsia typhi or Rickettsia prowazekii.” The form of typhus depends on which type of bacteria causes the infection. Murine typhus occurs in the southeastern and southern United States, often during the summer and fall. It is rarely deadly. Risk factors for murine typhus include:
- Exposure to rat fleas or feces
- Exposure to other animals such as cats, opossums, raccoons, skunks and rats
- Fleas can help to transmit “Cat Scratch” disease from one cat to another. We humans get Cat Scratch Fever when we are scratched by an infected feline.
- Fleas can transmit hemoplasmas, a blood borne parasite that can cause damage to the red calls which results in anemia in your pet.
- Even if your pet never goes outdoors, you can carry fleas into the house on your pants legs. Fleas can survive the winter just fine as long as you continue to heat your home.
AAHA Pets’ Matter is a great source of information on pet health. This week we’d like to share their tips for keeping your dog healthy and active in the winter months. Just click on the link below.
Have a wonderful and safe New Year!
1) Potpourri: Liquid potpourri can make your home smell festive for the holidays but remember to keep it away from your pets. If the worst happens and your pet swallows liquid potpourri or spills any of it on themselves, you may see some of the following: drooling in case of ingestion, burning of the skin or mouth, weakness and vomiting. If you think any potpourri may be left on your pet’s skin, bathe them ASAP and call your veterinarian.
2) Oh Christmas Tree: As beautiful as Christmas trees are, they can pose considerable danger to your pets. Don’t make this the Christmas you remember because of the trip to the emergency room. Be sure to secure your tree properly so playful pets don’t topple it and injure themselves.
3) Ornaments: Cats love to play with tinsel but it can be a deadly game. If ingested tinsel can cause a linear foreign body capable of cutting through intestines. Signs may include loss of appetite, lethargy and vomiting. Notify your veterinarian immediately if you think your cat has eaten any tinsel. Ornament hooks can also be a hazard. They are easily swallowed by pets and can lodge in the stomach or intestines. Even broken ornaments knocked from the tree can cut sensitive paw pads. In general, it is best not place ornaments low on the tree where pets can dislodge them.
4) Electrical Cords: All kinds of pets are susceptible to allure of chewing electrical cords. Once they come into contact with bare wire, they can die suddenly or receive severe burns to the mouth. Signs of electrical burns include drooling, blisters and swelling around the mouth and an unwillingness or inability to eat or drink. This type of injury requires immediate veterinary care.
5) Poinsettias/Mistletoe: Both these plants are commonly used as decorative accents during the Holiday season. Poinsettia can cause local irritation to the mouth, gums and GI tract if ingested. Treat your pet by washing the sap off immediately to stop further irritation. If your pet is vomiting or if their eyes appear inflamed, call your veterinarian It is the berries of the Mistletoe that pose a danger to pets. Depending on the amount ingested, symptoms can range from GI upset and vomiting to drooling, diarrhea, increased urination, and rapid heart rate and respiration. All of these symptoms require immediate veterinary care.
6) Alcohol: Are there still people who think it is funny to feed pets alcohol? Sadly the answer is yes. It really doesn’t matter whether toxicity occurs by accident or intent; it is important to understand that pets can die from alcohol ingestion. Alcohol poisoning is dependent on the amount of alcohol ingested as compared to an animal’s weight. That means when a small pet gets into an alcoholic beverage, it can cause a significant toxicity problem. According to Becky Lundgren, DVM, “Within 15 to 30 minutes after the pet has drunk the alcohol on an empty stomach (or within 1 to 2 hours on a full stomach); central nervous system signs (such as staggering, excitement, or decreased reflexes) can begin. Behavioral changes can be seen, as can an increased need to urinate. As the problem gets worse, the pet may become depressed, have a slow respiratory rate, or go into cardiac arrest. Puppies and kittens are at particular risk because of their small size and immature organ systems.”
7) Chocolate: Most people are aware that chocolate is bad for pets. We just need to be extra careful to keep it away from them during the holidays. As with most toxicities, problems with chocolate vary depending on the amount of cocoa, the size of the animal and the total amount ingested. Again, a small pet that eats dark chocolate can be expected to have a much more severe problem. Signs of toxicity include increased excitability, increased irritability, increased heart rate, restlessness, increased urination, muscle tremors, vomiting and diarrhea. Be sure to call your veterinarian immediately if you think your pet may have ingested chocolate.
8) Grapes/Raisins: Lots of Holiday breads and treats contain raisins or grapes. We love them but accidental ingestion by our pets can cause kidney problems. If you suspect your pet may have ingested either call your veterinarian ASAP.
9) Burning Candles: This hazard doesn’t need a lot of explanation. We all just need to remember to take extra care that candles are safely out of the way of rambunctious pets and children.
10) Overindulgence: As tempting as it may be, please don’t share your holiday bounty with your pets. Too much fatty food can cause a bout of pancreatitis (an inflammation of the pancreas caused by over secretion of the enzymes used to digest food) and land your pet in the emergency room. Signs of pancreatitis include: vomiting, no or decreased appetite, an abdomen that is painful to the touch and/or a hunched appearance, fever, diarrhea, lethargy /depression, and dehydration. Pancreatitis can be life threatening and requires immediate veterinary care.
So, please enjoy the holidays but remember keep a watchful eye on your pet as well.
ASPCA Poison Control: 888-426-4435
Dear Doctor Rob:
Why is there so much difference from clinic to clinic when it comes to dental procedures? I want to do the best thing for my pet but frankly, I am confused. Could you please help me understand what is involved in a dental procedure?
Confused Pet Owner
Making comparisons about any procedure at a veterinary clinic (or for that matter at a dentist office, with a plumber, mechanic, lawyer, etc.) can be a bit tricky. Are apples being compared with apples? Any other way is just not fair.
A dental cleaning means different things to different people and there is a huge difference between removing tartar from the crown of the tooth and a complete oral exam with cleaning, polishing, charting and oral surgery if needed.
As much as we promote dental home care to prevent disease, the fact is that most of what we do is not a simple cleaning. Most patients have dental disease that needs to be addressed, safely, under anesthesia, while on IV fluids, with monitoring. Sometimes this also includes dental x-rays, deeper pocket cleaning and even oral surgery.
So questions need to be asked. Do these estimates or procedures include:
Does your veterinarian provide pre-surgical bloodwork to evaluate liver and kidney function? That is the only way to tailor anesthesia to your pet’s health requirements. Will there be intravenous fluids to support blood pressure and help blood flow to the kidneys and other organs? Will your pet be under general anesthesia with intubation to provide a secure source of oxygen and to protect the airway from aspiration of water and bacteria ? Does the veterinarian have trained staff monitoring your pet while he or she under anesthesia? Are pain medications provided before the procedure? Do they use local nerve blocks to protect your pet from pain during the procedure? This would be similar to the lidocaine you receive at your dentist. Does the practice provide pain medications if required after the procedure? Do they scale above and below the gumline or just clean what you can see? What type of scaling do they use? Is it hand scaling or ultrasonic ? Do they make certain to polish your pet’s teeth after scaling? If not, they are simply providing a new surface for tartar to attach to the teeth. Do they probe the gumline for pockets and then chart their findings? If they find a potential problem do they have the ability to do digital dental x-rays? Do they have the tools and training to perform safe surgical extractions, if needed? That includes closure of the surgery (extraction) sites. Does your pet receive antibiotics before and after the procedure if needed? Will there be detailed home care recommendations and recheck exams? Are extractions recommended appropriately or only when teeth are just about to fall out on their own? Are root planing and subgingival curettage offered? Is there a licensed veterinary technician assisting the veterinarian? Has the veterinarian and staff received continuing education from a board certified veterinary dentist?
If the answers to all of these questions are the same, then fair statements can be made. We are proud of the services we offer and the job that we do. There are no standards mandated in veterinary medicine that every clinic must abide by, therefore no two clinics are the same. This is part of the reason we follow American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) standards and are AAHA certified.
I hope this has helped make things a little less confusing for you. If you still have questions, feel free to call the clinic or visit our website at www.animalfamilyveterinarycare.com
The thyroid is the largest of the endocrine glands. It is shield shaped and located in the neck near the larynx or voice box. The thyroid’s job is to secrete the hormones which regulate growth and metabolism. It also acts as a storehouse for iodine. So when there is a problem with the thyroid gland we will often see significant changes throughout the body systems.
Hypothyroidism is caused by a decrease in the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is seen in middle aged dogs, generally 7 years of age or older. It is very rare in cats. It is occurs most often in larger breeds but we see hypothyroid problems in all sizes and breeds of dogs. Thyroid dysfunction in dogs is generally caused by damage or atrophy of the gland itself. It is rare to see hypothyroidism caused by cancer.
Our typical thyroid patient is overweight, with thinning hair, dark pigmented, dry skin and a brittle hair coat. Hair loss on the trunk of the pet’s body is frequently seen. Owner’s may mention that their pet has become less active and lost muscle tone There may also be an increase in ear infections or the sudden onset of seizures.
Diagnosis and Tests:
Hypothyroidism is trickier to diagnose because other problems can look very similar. Cushing’s disease, Diabetes and other endocrine related dysfunction can present with many similar symptoms. That is why laboratory tests are crucial when diagnosing and treating thyroid dysfunction. Complete blood count and serum chemistries help us to rule out other causes and point us in the right direction if the thyroid is involved. Specific tests, such as Free T4 and TSH stimulation tests, target the thyroid hormone levels and provide a definitive diagnosis. Periodic monitoring of blood thyroid levels will be needed over the lifetime of the pet to make certain therapeutic levels are maintained.
Once it occurs, Hypothyroidism requires lifelong supplementation to keep hormone levels normal. The good news is that supplementation is easy, relatively inexpensive and quite successful in managing the disease. Most of signs will lessen or disappear over time once treatment begins. Some medications such as steroids, sulfonamides and Phenobarbital can interfere with thyroid levels so it is important to always make certain that everyone involved with the treatment of your pet knows what medications they are taking.
We hope this will help you recognize the signs of thyroid dysfunction in your dog. At Animal Family, we try to help by including a screen for Thyroid disease in our Senior Wellness Blood test. It is our hope that through early detection and treatment we can help to improve the quality of life for your pet.
|Product||Key Ingredients||Species||Oral or Topical||How does it work?||How long does it last?||What other parasites does it kill?||Earliest age it can be applied|
|Heartgard Plus||Dogs Ivermectin Pyrantel
|Dogs Cats||Oral||Prevents heartworm disease by eliminating tissue stage larvae||Administer monthly||Dogs Roundworms Hookworms
|Dogs 6 weeks
Cats: 6 weeks Must be heartworm negative
|Trifexis||Spinosad & Milbemycin Oxime||Dogs||Oral||Prevents heartworm disease by eliminating tissue stage larvae||Administer monthly||Dogs Fleas Hookworms, Roundworms, Whipworms||Dogs 8 weeks or 5 pounds
Give with food
Some vomiting reported.
Must be heartworm negative
Consult Vet in epileptics,
Breeding males & females.
|Topical||Prevents heartworm disease by eliminating tissue stage larvae||Apply monthly||Dogs & Cats Ear Mites, American Dog Tick, Fleas
Dogs only: used to treat Sarcoptic Mange
Cats Roundworms Hookworms
|Dogs 6 weeks
Cats 8 weeks Not for sick, debilitated, under weight or heartworm positive animals.
|Sentinel||Milbemycin &Lufenuron||Dogs||Oral||Prevents heartworm disease by eliminating tissue stage larvae||Administer monthly||Dogs Fleas Hookworms, Roundworms Whipworms||Dogs 4 weeks 2 pounds
Must be heartworm negative
Give with food
I was about 15 years old. I was really in to horseback riding at the time and my horse had some chronic lameness issues. We had to work closely with our veterinarian for quite some time to manage his issues. I found the medical aspect interesting and also the fact that as a veterinarian you can impact peoples’ lives through caring for their beloved family members.
2. What is the best part of your job?
There are a lot of great parts but I would have to say my favorite part is when we get to perform life saving surgeries.
3. What’s the most interesting case you’ve ever had?
When I was in my last year of school, a dog came in that had swallowed a 10 inch kitchen knife that was lodged in its esophagus in the chest. There was a lot of work done to figure out how to get the knife out without damage to the esophagus. The dog ended up being anesthetized and a PVC pipe run down the esophagus to surround the whole knife and then they were brought back up together.
4. What’s the most difficult part of your job?
The fact that the animals can’t talk. It can be very difficult to figure out why a patient does not feel well if their only symptom is they are not acting like themselves. Sometimes you wish they could answer questions for you!
5. Why become a vet when you could have gone into human medicine and made more money?
I really enjoy working with animals and their owners. I also feel that in veterinary medicine you get more chances to see a variety of case types where human medicine has become very specialized.
6. We know you have to like animals for this job but what are the other unique requirements?
7. How has veterinary medicine changed since your parent’s time?
It has become more centered around the companion animal and less focused toward livestock medicine.
8. Even though both jobs require the same amount of education; how does veterinary medicine differ from human medicine beyond the obvious question of species?
There are specialists in the veterinary world, but still the majority of veterinarians are general practitioners that work on a wide variety of problems. When you work on more than one species you do have to have a wide knowledge base and know the differences in medications, anatomy, behavior, nutritional needs, etc, etc.
9. What do you think the new horizons for veterinary medicine will be?
10. If someone gave you a magic wand and you could go back and do it over again, would you still become a vet?